Opportunity to join the most exciting museum in Orlando!

Effective May 2015

 

Apply by emailing resume to: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

 


 

OSC’s Guiding Principles
  • Act with the highest integrity.
  • Commitment to excellence.
  • Embrace teamwork and collaboration.
  • Treat all with respect.
  • Be innovative.
  • Be a responsible steward of all resources.

 

 

Chief Financial Officer (CFO)

Full time benefited position. The CFO serves on the senior leadership team for the Science Center and reports directly to the President and CEO. Strong leadership skills including communication, strategic thinking, and ability to manage the finance team are required. The CFO is responsible for overseeing the security of the financial assets of the Center, monitoring and analyzing the financial condition of the Center and making recommendations to the President/CEO, ensuring OSC maintains a strong financial position.

Job Duties:

  • Exercises fiscal control over the assets of the Center by providing planning, implementation and supervision of accounting systems, policies, procedures and internal controls.
  • Analyzes financial and operational statements and reports and makes recommendations to the President/CEO in regard to financial policies.
  • Directs the Center’s cash flow. Acts as staff liaison with banking and investment institutions and advises on investments for short term and long term financial plans.
  • Works directly with OSC’s attorney on legal issues and negotiates and provides contract review for OSC contracts.
  • Leads OSC’s Finance Committee, provides monthly financial statements, cost/market analyses and other reports as required.
  • Supervises the maintenance of the general ledger, departmental ledgers and all other subsidiary financial records belonging to OSC. Maintains control and supervises the balancing operation on all records, including but not limited to: bank statements, investment accounts and other subsidiary records. Prepares monthly and annual financial statements.
  • Oversees preparation of OSC’s annual operating budget. Responsible for monitoring and budget performance. 
  • Monitors various funds and special project grants. Oversees the appropriateness of the disbursements of separate funds and restricted grants in accordance with specified spending restrictions. Oversees preparation of reports required by regulatory agencies, responsible for the proper accounting of all gifts, in-kind donations, investment income and other funds received.
  • Schedules, coordinates and assists external auditors. Works directly with independent CPA’s preparing all required audit schedules and work-papers for their review and audit.
  • Maintains OSC’s tax exempt status, including preparing tax returns and charitable organization filings.
  • Responsible for overall review, compilation, and analysis of all commercial package insurance, and risk review.


Education:
 Bachelor’s degree in Accounting, and a CPA or ten years management accounting experience. 

Supervision Given: Accounting staff 

Supervision Received: President/CEO  

 

 

 

Director of Development - Individual Giving 

Full time benefited position. Working with the Vice President of Development, the Director of Development will create and execute both short term and long-term strategies for increasing contributed and earned revenue streams while building sustainable relationships for OSC.

JOB DUTIES:

  • Build and maintain strategic relationships with individual prospects and donors; manage a dynamic portfolio.
  • Initiate and solicit gifts for the Orlando Science Center with a focus on identifying, cultivating, and soliciting individual prospects with the potential to support the Center with gifts of $10,000 and above.
  • Prepare written proposals to solicit prospects for gifts in support of the Orlando Science Center using persuasive language to promote visionary gift opportunities;
  • Develop and document a robust pipeline of proposals and meet annual fundraising goals; establish and achieve benchmarks for constructive growth; measure progress against institutional goals.
  • Adhere to established protocols.
  • Ensure reporting requirements are completed in timely and accurate manner; utilize automated systems for tracking and reporting; develop and maintain prospect lists in donor database.
  • Work with the events team to support annual events targeted toward individuals including but not limited to the annual Inspire Science breakfast.
  • Insure proper presentation of materials and other deliverables as necessary.
  • Participate in the launch and implemention of a successful comprehensive campaign for the long term growth of the Center.
  • Other duties as assigned.


EXPERIENCE:

  • A minimum of five years of major gifts experience with demonstrated accomplishment in the acquisition of gifts from individuals, including direct ask experience.
  • The demonstrated ability to strategize, formulate and close gifts of five and six figures and above, and reach annual fundraising goals and targets.
  • General understanding of tax and other aspects of all planned giving vehicles; ability to recognize and cultivate planned giving prospects; experience soliciting, structuring and closing planned gifts preferred.
  • Excellent written and oral communication and negotiation skills; demonstrably strong planning and organizational skills; ability to handle multiple projects simultaneously with attention to accuracy and detail.
  • Flexibility and initiative, as well as the ability to work independently as well as to collaborate with others for productive outcomes.
  • Superb judgment in all areas related to frontline fundraising.
  • Exceptional interpersonal capabilities in order to partner seamlessly with the Orlando Science Center’s leadership, staff, and high-level volunteers in order to meet increasing fundraising goals.
  • Demonstrated ability to handle confidential information with appreciation for the importance of complete protection of the privacy of donors and prospects.
  • Proficiency in Tessitura or a similar constituent database.
  • Experience working with a non-profit educational or social service agency.
  • Knowledge and involvement in the local community. Bachelor’s degree required; advanced degree appreciated.


QUALIFICATIONS AND EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS:

  • College degree in a related technical, scientific or engineering discipline.
  • Three-five years relevant work experience directly related to the duties and responsibilities specified.

 

TRAVEL:

Central Florida region required. 

 

 

Animal Husbandry Lead Technician

Full time benefited position. Provide the daily care of all OSC animals, and the maintenance and repair of animal support systems within the Nature Works exhibition; present science programming to guests within the NatureWorks exhibit. Act as liaison between Nature Works staff and Manager. Supervise volunteers and manage their time and assignments. Experience with aquariums and closed aquatic systems and reptiles is required. Experience with amphibians and invertebrate species is beneficial. This position requires weekend and some evening work.

Essential Job Functions:

  • Prepare and feed daily ration of frozen, fresh and dry commercial foods.
  • Maintain exhibit aesthetics to departmental standards through regular cleaning of habitats and windows, hydro-cleaning gravel, cleaning overflow screens and removing debris.
  • Present public programs to diverse groups.
  • Identify common diseases.
  • Administer treatments with the help of the Nature Works Manager.
  • Participate in departmental and special events both at the science center and off property.
  • Assist in renovating exhibits to incorporate new filters, pumps, lighting, etc., and to rebuild habitats when needed.
  • Communicate updates in an efficient and professional manner to the Manager of NatureWorks.
  • Train staff, volunteers and others as necessary as it relates to work and animals in assigned section.
  • Must represent the Orlando Science Center in a professional manner with all guests and staff.


QUALIFICATIONS AND EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS:

  • Bachelor’s degree in natural sciences, ecology, natural resources management, education, or a related field or equivalent education plus experience.
  • The equivalent of two years experience in a zoo, aquarium, museum, park or a similar facility including performing, preparing or coordinating interpretive educational programming.


PREFERRED SKILLS:

  • Experience with exhibit fabrication, veterinary/medical care and snorkeling is preferred.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Must be able to stand for extended periods and be able to lift 30 lbs.

 

 

Early Childhood Presenter

Full time benefited position. This individual is needed to provide quality daily programming for the Science Center’s early learners. This position reports directly to the Manager of Public Programs. The daily functions of this position will be to deliver and develop programming to our early childhood learners for the Public Programming department and Member Relations department. The Early Childhood Interpreter will be expected to complete tasks with minimal supervision, and demonstrate excellent customer service skills. 

Essential Functions:

  • Must be able to work weekends.
  • Provide a child-friendly staff presence in KidsTown and any other exhibits pertaining to Early Childhood.
  • Works with a high degree of independence.
  • Provide exemplary guest service.
  • Exemplary written and oral communication skills.


Expected Duties and Responsibilities:

  • Assist with research and ideas for new activities and age appropriate programs for children under the age of seven.
  • Update program schedule and maintain supplies for all KidsTown programs
  • Research ideas for new activities and age appropriate programs for children under the age of seven.
  • Maintain high quality of KidsTown and early childhood areas by keeping track of exhibit materials, scheduling and exhibit facilitation training.
  • Develop new content for special member events, monthly content, and special early childhood programming.
  • Assign early childhood projects to interns and volunteers Reports regularly on project progress to Manager of Public Programs 


Education: 
Degree seeking or hold a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education, psychology, or museum studies.

Experience:
The candidate should have experience teaching children (age 8 and under) either informally or in a classroom setting. The candidate should have strong guest service skills. Strong written and oral communication is required. Customer service experience and experience speaking in front of large audiences is desirable.

REQUIRED SKILLS:
A valid Florida driver’s license, ability to drive a van, maintain a clear driving record, and retain driving approval through OSC’s insurance company.

PREFERRED SKILLS:
Experience performing improv or any theater experience. Experience developing curriculum for informal education facilities.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Must be able to stand for long periods and be able to lift 30 lbs.

  

 

Preschool Teacher

Full time benefited position. Responsible for the general supervision and management of a class of preschool (3 – 5 yr) children, planning and executing the Early Childhood education program in accordance with the goals, objectives and standards set forth by the Orlando Science Center Preschool in alliance with Early Childhood developmentally appropriate practices, FL Department of Children and Families and “Creative Curriculum” and Voluntary PreKindergarten (VPK). Instruct children (3 – 5 yr) in activities designed to promote social/emotional, physical and intellectual growth needed to be successful individuals related to their peer group, environment and community.

Qualifications and Education Requirements:

  • Must be at least 18 years old.
  • A degree (Associate or above) in Child Development, Early Childhood, Pre-Kindergarten, Primary, or Elementary Education preferred. Exceptional Student Education, Florida Child Care Professional Credential (FCCPC – formally National CDA), Early Childhood Professional Certificate (ECPC or formally CDAE), certified National CDA or certified CDAE accepted.
  • FL Department of Children and Families Staff credential – VPK
  • Clear Level 2 Background screening.  May not be in classroom until this is established.
  • FL Department of Children and Families 45 hours Child Care training
  • FL Voluntary PreKindergarten (VPK) Education Standards and Emergent Literacy for VPK
  • CPR and Basic First Aid Certification
  • Work experience with children 0 – 8 years old.
  • Excellent communication skills; presentation and public speaking. Reliable, organized, self-starter. Ability to work with little direct supervision Enthusiastic, friendly, outgoing; must love working with people

Preferred Skills

  • Active listening and Social Perceptiveness - give full attention to others saying, taking time to understand, ask appropriate questions and being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
  • Instructing – teaching others how to do something.
  • Speaking – talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Reading comprehension – understanding written sentences and paragraphs.
  • Learning strategies – selecting and using g training/instructional methods for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
  • Writing – communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
  • Time management - managing one’s own time and the time of others.
  • Monitoring – monitoring /assessing performance of self, individuals and group to make improvements or use corrective actions.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Tasks involve the ability to exert very moderate physical effort in light work, typically involving some combination of stooping, kneeling, crouching and crawling. Also involved maybe some lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling of objects, materials or children up to 40 lbs. Sensory requirements are visual perceptions and discrimination, oral communication, and ability to perceive and discriminate sounds.

 

 

Preschool Assistant

Part Time Position. Responsible for assisting Preschool classroom teachers with general supervision and management of a class of preschool (3 – 5 yr) children. Assisting in the execution of the Early Childhood education program in accordance with the goals, objectives and standards set forth by the Orlando Science Center Preschool, along with Early Childhood developmentally appropriate practices, FL Department of Children and Families guidelines and “Creative Curriculum”. Support children (3 – 5 yr) in activities designed to promote social/emotional, physical and intellectual growth needed to be successful individuals related to their peer group, environment and community.

Essential Job Functions: Assist classroom teachers with daily scheduled lessons, units, themes, activities and projects. Work with children through interactions with activities and materials. Assist classroom teachers with organization and direction of activities/materials to promote physical, mental, social development such as games, art, music/movement and story telling. Arrange indoor and outdoor space to facilitate creative play, motor development and safety. Assist substitute classroom teachers with maintaining daily schedule that includes weekly lesson plans, activities and materials needed to fulfill goals and objectives. Preferred skills: Active listening and Social Perceptiveness - give full attention to others saying, taking time to understand, ask appropriate questions and being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do. Instructing – teaching others how to do something. Speaking – talking to others to convey information effectively. Reading comprehension – understanding written sentences and paragraphs. Learning strategies – selecting and using g training/instructional methods for the situation when learning or teaching new things. Writing – communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. Time management - managing one’s own time and the time of others. Monitoring – monitoring /assessing performance of self, individuals and group to make improvements or use corrective actions.

Qualifications and Education Requirements:

  • Required - High School or GED diploma
  • A degree (Associate or above) in Child Development, Early Childhood, Pre-Kindergarten, Primary, or Elementary Education preferred. Exceptional Student Education, Florida Child Care Professional Credential (FCCPC – formally National CDA), Early Childhood Professional Certificate (ECPC or formally CDAE), certified National CDA or certified CDAE accepted.
  • Clear Level 2 Background screening. May not be in classroom until this is established.
  • FL Department of Children and Families 45 hours Child Care training
  • Preferred - Voluntary PreKindergarten (VPK) Education Standards and Emergent Literacy for VPK
  • CPR and Basic First Aid Certification
  • Work experience with children 0 – 8 years old.
  • Excellent communication skills; presentation and public speaking. Reliable, organized, self-starter. Ability to work with little direct supervision Enthusiastic, friendly, outgoing; must love working with people

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Tasks involve the ability to exert very moderate physical effort in light work, typically involving some combination of stooping, kneeling, crouching and crawling. Also involved maybe some lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling of objects, materials or children up to 40 lbs. Sensory requirements are visual perceptions and discrimination, oral communication, and ability to perceive and discriminate sounds.

 

 

Exhibit Fabrication Specialist

Full time benefited position. This position is responsible for fabrication and repair of OSC exhibits, kiosks, cases, displays and individual exhibit components. This includes the ability to proficiently demonstrate specialized wood working, metal working and plastic working skills and techniques. This position is also responsible for maintaining OSC’s fabrication shop and tools including safety and housekeeping best practices.

Essential Job Functions:

  • Adhere to OSHA standards for safety involving personal safety, equipment safety, and chemical handling.
  • Able to safely and skillfully operate power tools (table saw, band saw, drill press, etc.)
  • Proficient use of hand tools (wrenches, sockets, drivers, files, etc.)
  • Able to operate industrial Mill & Lathe.
  • Able to proficiently operate various routers and spindle cutters (hand, table, CNC). 
  • Laminating, painting, staining and finishing various woods, metals and plastics.
  • Metal working such as tap and die.
  • Ability to machine parts out of various metals.
  • Mechanical systems fabrication and troubleshooting.
  • Must have knowledge of various plastics and their working properties.
  • Must be familiar with solvents & adhesives and their safe handling requirements.
  • The ability to work with precision measuring tools such as calipers and understand various standards of measurements (metric, standard, decimal, and fraction).
  • Fabricate new exhibits or components from drawings, sketches or ideas.
  • Able to read and fabricate from CAD drawings.
  • Repair and refurbish exhibits as needed.
  • Assist with repair for traveling exhibits as needed.
  • Must maintain safe maintenance and operation of all shop equipment at all times.
  • Maintain clean, safe and organized shop and work spaces. 


Guiding Principles:

  • Act with the highest integrity.
  • Commitment to excellence.
  • Embrace teamwork and collaboration.
  • Treat all with respect.
  • Be innovative.
  • Be a responsible steward of all resources.


Qualifications and Education Requirements:

  • High School diploma or equivalent.
  • BID or VCE preferred.
  • Five years or more relevant work experience will be considered.


Preferred Skils: 

  • Ability to work from hand drawn sketches and verbal concepts.
  • Project and/or shop management experience preferred but not required.
  • Good communication – written and oral.


Physical Requirements:

  • Able to lift, push and/or pull up to 50 lbs.
  • Able to climb ladder.
  • Able to stand for extended periods of time. 

 

 

Early Childhood Educator

Part time position. A cheerful, animated, thoughtful and engaging individual is needed to provide fun and quality educational programming for the Science Center’s early learners. The daily functions of this position consist of but are not limited to: Engaging and educating families, school groups, campers and teachers about various sciences and early childhood topics with the use of demonstrations and hands-on activities in an informal setting. The Early Childhood Educator will deliver educational content in one or more of the following ways: classroom instruction on and off museum grounds, large capacity auditorium programming on and off museum grounds, and floor demonstrations. Educators will be expected to study curriculum and supplementary materials to gain proficiency in the sciences taught by the institution and improve upon existing content knowledge and teaching/presentation skills. 

Essential Job Functions:

  • Responsible for teaching early childhood workshops, discovery labs, offsite programs, camps, and some weekend events.
  • Responsible for delivering OSC curriculum and engaging children, families and guests in hands-on activities and demonstrations.
  • Applicants should be good communicators, have the ability to complete tasks with minimal supervision, and demonstrate excellent customer service skills.
  • This position requires individuals who are comfortable speaking in front of audiences of all sizes and delivering basic science instruction to guests of all ages.  
  • Ensure age appropriateness in all programs and alignment with learning and developmental standards.
  • Maintains a safe and secure environment for guests and staff.
  • Keeps current in science and education related to OSC’s content and exhibits.
  • Qualified applicants will demonstrate a willingness to learn.  
  • Availability on Saturdays is required.


Qualifications and Education Requirements:

Enthusiastic, friendly, outgoing; must love working with children and guests. Qualified candidates should be degree seeking or hold a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education, education, science, psychology, or museum studies preferred. A valid driver’s license is required. Experience working with children or teaching children (age 7 and under) either informally or in a classroom setting.

Preferred Skills:

  • Course work in the field of Early Childhood or Education.
  • Experience developing curriculum for informal education facilities. 
  • Experience in the performing arts or theater experience. 
  • Minimum of one year experience teaching and delivering educational programming in an informal setting (child care facility, museum, zoo).


PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: 
Must be able to stand for extended periods and lift 30lbs.

 




 

Educator FT

Full time benefited position. The daily functions of this position consist of but are not limited to: Engaging and educating children in preschool-12th grade about various sciences with the use of demonstrations and hands-on activities in an informal setting. The Educator/Presenter will deliver educational content in one the following ways: classroom instruction on and off museum grounds, large capacity auditorium programming on and off museum grounds, and floor demonstrations. Educators will be expected to study curriculum and supplementary materials to gain proficiency in the sciences taught by the institution and improve upon existing content knowledge and teaching/presentation skills.

Essential Job Functions:

  • Responsible for delivering OSC curriculum and engaging students and guests in hands-on activities and demonstrations.
  • Assist with the training of new education staff and seasonal employees.
  • Applicants should be good communicators, have the ability to complete tasks with minimal supervision, and demonstrate excellent customer service skills.
  • This position requires individuals who are comfortable speaking in front of large audiences and delivering science instruction to guests of all ages.
  • Participate in the development and implementation of new content.
  • Qualified applicants will demonstrate a willingness to learn.


QUALIFICATIONS AND EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS:
Qualified candidates should hold a Bachelors degree in education, science, or a related field or hold an Associates Degree and seeking a Bachelors degree with experience. A valid driver’s license is required.

PREFERRED SKILLS:
The candidate should have experience teaching either informally or in a classroom. Experience in public speaking and customer service is desirable.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS:
Must be able to stand for extended periods and lift 30lbs.

 

 

Educator

Part time position. The daily functions of this position consist of but are not limited to: Engaging and educating school groups, scouts, campers and teachers about various sciences with the use of demonstrations and hands-on activities in an informal setting. The Educator will deliver educational content in one or more of the following ways: classroom instruction on and off museum grounds, large capacity auditorium programming on and off museum grounds, and floor demonstrations. Educators will be expected to study curriculum and supplementary materials to gain proficiency in the sciences taught by the institution and improve upon existing content knowledge and teaching/presentation skills.

Essential Job Functions:

  • Responsible for teaching discovery labs, offsite programs, scout programs, camps, and overnights.
  • Responsible for delivering OSC curriculum and engaging students and guests in hands-on activities and demonstrations.
  • Applicants should be good communicators, have the ability to complete tasks with minimal supervision, and demonstrate excellent customer service skills.
  • This position requires individuals who are comfortable speaking in front of audiences of all sizes and delivering science instruction to guests of all ages.
  • Qualified applicants will demonstrate a willingness to learn.

Qualified candidates should either be degree seeking or hold a bachelors degree in education, science, or a related field.

  • Enthusiastic, friendly, outgoing; must love working with children and guests
  • A valid driver’s license is required.

The candidate should have experience in a museum or other informal education environment. Experience teaching informally or in a classroom is required. A background in public speaking and customer service is essential.

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Must be able to stand for extended periods and lift 30lbs.




  

House Manager/Hospitality

Part time position. Position Summary: Provide superior customer service while maintaining a safe and secure environment for OSC guests and team members. This position is expected to be on the floor 90% of the shift during public operating hours.

  • Open and close the building as per established procedures.
  • Hourly walk through in the parking garage documenting and / or reporting to appropriate parties any needs or concerns.
  • Interact with OSC guests using the Customer First Approach and obtain feedback on the guest visit.
  • Monitor daily operation ensuring OSC programs begin on time, front of house positions appropriately staffed and public areas remain clean.
  • Accurately document shift activities in the House Managers log and note exhibit failures, maintenance personnel responding for repair and exhibits on the floor that are tagged.
  • Communicate exhibit failure, facility maintenance challenges and safety concerns to the Director of Facilities in a timely fashion.
  • Assist in emergency first aid and fire evacuations.
  • Prevent improper use of exhibits and the physical building.
  • Assist in locating lost children / parent.
  • Monitor crowd density in public areas.
  • Support Shipping and Receiving / Mailroom / Copy Center in the absence of the Clerk.
  • Support other teams within the organization with superior Internal Customer Service.
  • Other duties assigned.


Education or Certifications:
High School diploma or equivalent

Work Experience: Some experience in the customer service field.

Required Skills: Customer service experience, security or related field and certified in CPR and emergency first aid useful but not necessary.

Physical Requirements: Up to 30 hour work week. Available all hours, and shifts, ability to do a lot standing, walking and climbing stairs. Ability to lift 30 pounds, ability to push/pull a certain amount of weight.

 

 

Movie Operator

Part time position. Responsible for operating CineDome and the Digital Adventure Theater automation system, presenting shows and assisting visitors in and out of the CineDome and the Digital Adventure Theatre, including, but not limited to, taking tickets, answering questions, and light administrative work. High School Graduate or equivalent, some college preferred. Must be able to sit/stand for extended periods of time.

 

 

Guest Services Representative

Part time position. Representatives perform all ticket transactions for the Center as well as help visitors with directions and information about OSC and surrounding areas. Additionally, Guest Services Representatives actively sell and maintain all OSC memberships.

QUALIFICATIONS AND EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS: 

  • High School
  • Guest Services, Cash Handling, and Computer Experience

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS: Will need to stand for long periods of times. Must be able to lift up to 50 lbs. 

 

 

 

Orlando Science Center is an Equal Opportunity Employer committed to a diverse team of professionals! 

Benefits for FT: Health benefits (health, dental, vision), long-term disability; life insurance, employer matched savings plan, credit union, flexible vacation days. For PT & FT: Annual family membership, complimentary Science Center tickets, Credit Union, direct deposit, discounts in the café, store, and programs.

 

 

 

 


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777 E. Princeton Street • Orlando, Florida 32803 • Phone: 407.514.2000 • TTY: 407.514.2005 • Toll Free: 888.OSC.4FUN • Email: gservices@osc.org
  Orlando Science Center is supported by United Arts of Central Florida, host of power2give.org/centralflorida and the collaborative Campaign for the Arts.
This project is funded in part by Orange County Government through the Arts & Cultural Affairs Program. Privacy Policy • Accessibility

A COPY OF THE OFFICIAL REGISTRATION AND FINANCIAL INFORMATION FOR ORLANDO SCIENCE CENTER, A FLORIDA-BASED NONPROFIT CORPORATION (REGISTRATION NO. CH2342), MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE DIVISION OF CONSUMER SERVICES BY CALLING TOLL-FREE 1-800-HELP-FLA (435-7352) WITHIN THE STATE OR VISITING THEIR WEBSITE. REGISTRATION DOES NOT IMPLY ENDORSEMENT, APPROVAL, OR RECOMMENDATION BY THE STATE.